Quadriceps femoris spasticity in children with cerebral palsy: measurement with the pendulum test and relationship with gait abnormalitiesReportar como inadecuado

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Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation

, 11:166

First Online: 16 December 2014Received: 21 December 2013Accepted: 12 December 2014


BackgroundDevelopment of a reliable and objective test of spasticity is important for assessment and treatment of children with cerebral palsy. The pendulum test has been reported to yield reliable measurements of spasticity and to be sensitive to variations in spasticity in these children. However, the relationship between the pendulum test scores and other objective measures of spasticity has not been studied. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an accelerometer-based pendulum test as a measurement of spasticity in CP, and to explore the correlation between the measurements of this test and the global index of deviation from normal gait in in children with cerebral palsy.

MethodsWe studied thirty-six children with cerebral palsy, including 18 with spastic hemiplegia and 18 with spastic diplegia, and a group of 18 typically-developing children. Knee extensor spasticity was assessed bilaterally using the accelerometer-based pendulum test and three-dimensional gait analysis. The Gillette Gait Index was calculated from the results of the gait analysis.

ResultsThe data from the accelerometer-based pendulum test could be used to distinguish between able-bodied children and children with cerebral palsy. Additionally, two of the measurements, first swing excursion and relaxation index, could be used to differentiate the degree of knee extensor spasticity in the children with cerebral palsy. Only a few moderate correlations were found between the Gillette Gait Index and the pendulum test data.

ConclusionsThis study demonstrates that the pendulum test can be used to discriminate between typically developing children and children with CP, as well as between various degrees of spasticity, such as spastic hemiplegia and spastic diplegia, in the knee extensor muscle of children with CP. Deviations from normal gait in children with CP were not correlated with the results of the pendulum test.

KeywordsCerebral palsy Clinical measurement of spasticity Pendulum test Gait analysis Gillette gait index AbbreviationsCPCerebral Palsy

SHSpastic Hemiplegia

SDSpastic Diplegia

RefReference group

MASModified Ashworth Scale

MTSModified Tardieu Scale

DAROMDynamic Evaluation of Range of Motion

ROMrange of motion

AOCAngle of catch

DROMRange of motion deficit, defined as the deficit value from the minimal muscle stretch position

DROM Irange of motion deficit following a slow velocity V1 stretch

DROM IIRange of motion deficit that represents the angle of the catch after a fast velocity V3 stretch

ASOAngle of spasticity, which is the value calculated as the difference between the DROM II and DROM I

3DGAthree-dimensional gait analysis

GGIGillette Gait Index

NINormalcy Index

Exfirst swing excursion

RIrelaxation index

βdamping ratio

λlogarithmic decrement

tduration of oscillations

nNumber of oscillations

ANOVAAnalysis of variance

ICC 3.3intraclass correlation coefficient

rsSpearman’s rank correlation.

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Autor: Andrzej Szopa - Małgorzata Domagalska–Szopa - Zenon Kidoń - Małgorzata Syczewska

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/

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