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BMC Plant Biology

, 14:377

Biochemistry and physiology


BackgroundLight is one of the most significant environmental factors affecting to the accumulation of flavonoids in fruits. The composition of the light spectrum has been shown to affect the production of phenolic compounds during fruit ripening. However, specific information on the biosynthesis of flavonoids in fruits in response to different wavelengths of light is still scarce. In the present study bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. fruits, which are known to be rich with anthocyanin compounds, were illuminated with blue, red, far-red or white light during the berry ripening process. Following the illumination, the composition of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds was analysed at the mature ripening stage of fruits.

ResultsAll the three monochromatic light treatments had significant positive effect on the accumulation of total anthocyanins in ripe fruits compared to treatment with white light or plants kept in darkness. The elevated levels of anthocyanins were mainly due to a significant increase in the accumulation of delphinidin glycosides. A total of 33 anthocyanin compounds were detected in ripe bilberry fruits, of which six are novel in bilberry cyanidin acetyl-3-O-galactose, malvidin acetyl-3-O-galactose, malvidin coumaroyl-3-O-galactose, malvidin coumaroyl-3-O-glucose, delphinidin coumaroyl-3-O-galactose, delphinidin coumaroyl-3-O-glucose.

ConclusionsOur results indicate that the spectral composition of light during berry development has significant effect on the flavonoid composition of ripe bilberry fruits.

KeywordsLight quality Vaccinium myrtillus L Flavonoids Anthocyanins Bilberry Berries UPLC-MS-MS AbbreviationsUPLC-MS-MSUltra performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometer











DWDry weight

VmCHSVaccinium myrtillus chalcone synthase

VmF3′5′HVaccinium myrtillus flavonoid 3′5′-hydroxylase

VmDFRVaccinium myrtillus dihydroflavonol 4-reductase

VmANSVaccinium myrtillus anthocyanidin synthase

VmANRVaccinium myrtillus anthocyanidin reductase

VmMYB2Vaccinium myrtillus MYB2 transcription factor

VmACTVaccinium myrtillus actin

MRMMultiple reaction monitoring

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s12870-014-0377-1 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Laura Zoratti - Marian Sarala - Elisabete Carvalho - Katja Karppinen - Stefan Martens - Lara Giongo - Hely Häggman - Laura


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