The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form is reliable in children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communitiesReport as inadecuate

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BMC Pediatrics

, 13:135

General pediatric medicine and surgery


BackgroundThe Lililwan Project is the first population-based study to determine Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders FASD prevalence in Australia and was conducted in the remote Fitzroy Valley in North Western Australia. The diagnostic process for FASD requires accurate assessment of gross and fine motor functioning using standardised cut-offs for impairment. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition BOT-2 is a norm-referenced assessment of motor function used worldwide and in FASD clinics in North America. It is available in a Complete Form with 53 items or a Short Form with 14 items. Its reliability in measuring motor performance in children exposed to alcohol in utero or living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities is unknown.

MethodsA prospective inter-rater and test-retest reliability study was conducted using the BOT-2 Short Form. A convenience sample of children n = 30 aged 7 to 9 years participating in the Lililwan Project cohort n = 108 study, completed the reliability study. Over 50% of mothers of Lililwan Project children drank alcohol during pregnancy. Two raters simultaneously scoring each child determined inter-rater reliability. Test-retest reliability was determined by assessing each child on a second occasion using predominantly the same rater. Reliability was analysed by calculating Intra-Class correlation Coefficients, ICC2,1, Percentage Exact Agreement PEA and Percentage Close Agreement PCA and measures of Minimal Detectable Change MDC were calculated.

ResultsThirty Aboriginal children 18 male, 12 female: mean age 8.8 years were assessed at eight remote Fitzroy Valley communities. The inter-rater reliability for the BOT-2 Short Form score sheet outcomes ranged from 0.88 95%CI, 0.77 – 0.94 to 0.92 95%CI, 0.84 – 0.96 indicating excellent reliability. The test-retest reliability median interval between tests being 45.5 days for the BOT-2 Short Form score sheet outcomes ranged from 0.62 95%CI, 0.34 – 0.80 to 0.73 95%CI, 0.50 – 0.86 indicating fair to good reliability. The raw score MDC was 6.12.

ConclusionThe BOT-2 Short Form has acceptable reliability for use in remote Australian Aboriginal communities and will be useful in determining motor deficits in children exposed to alcohol prenatally. This is the first known study evaluating the reliability of the BOT-2 Short Form, either in the context of assessment for FASD or in Aboriginal children.

KeywordsFetal alcohol spectrum disorders Fetal alcohol syndrome FAS Alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder Australian Aborigine Maternal use of alcohol School-aged children Reproducibility of results Culture Motor skills Child development AbbreviationsBOT-2Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency Second Edition

CFComplete form

CIConfidence interval

CNSCentral nervous system

FASDFetal alcohol spectrum disorder

FMFine motor

GMGross motor

ICCIntraclass correlation coefficient

IDIntellectual disability

MDCMinimal detectable change

Movement ABC-2Movement assessment battery for children second edition

PAEPrenatal alcohol exposure

PCAPercentage close agreement

PEAPercentage exact agreement

SAEStandard Australian English

SDStandard deviations

SEMStandard error measure

SFShort form.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1471-2431-13-135 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Barbara R Lucas - Jane Latimer - Robyn Doney - Manuela L Ferreira - Roger Adams - Genevieve Hawkes - James P Fitzpatrick



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