Discovery, distribution and diversity of Puroindoline-D1 genes in bread wheat from five countries Triticum aestivumL.Report as inadecuate

Discovery, distribution and diversity of Puroindoline-D1 genes in bread wheat from five countries Triticum aestivumL. - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

BMC Plant Biology

, 13:125

Genetics and crop biotechnology


BackgroundGrain texture is one of the most important characteristics in bread wheat Triticum aestivum L

Puroindoline-D1 genes play the main role in controlling grain texture and are intimately associated with the milling and processing qualities in bread wheat.

ResultsA series of diagnostic molecular markers and dCAPS markers were used to characterize Pina-D1 and Pinb-D1 in 493 wheat cultivars from diverse geographic locations. A primer walking strategy was used to characterize PINA-null alleles at the DNA level. Results indicated that Chinese landraces encompassing 12 different Puroindoline-D1 allelic combinations showed the highest diversity, while CIMMYT wheat cultivars containing 3 different Puroindoline-D1 allelic combinations showed the lowest diversity amongst wheat cultivars from the five countries surveyed. Two novel Pina-D1 alleles, designated Pina-D1s with a 4,422-bp deletion and Pina-D1u with a 6,460-bp deletion in the Ha Hardness locus, were characterized at the DNA level by a primer walking strategy, and corresponding molecular markers Pina-N3 and Pina-N4 were developed for straightforward identification of the Pina-D1s and Pina-D1u alleles. Analysis of the association of Puroindoline-D1 alleles with grain texture indicated that wheat cultivars with Pina-null-Pinb-null allele, possessing an approximate 33-kb deletion in the Ha locus, have the highest SKCS hardness index amongst the different genotypes used in this study. Moreover, wheat cultivars with the PINA-null allele have significantly higher SKCS hardness index than those of Pinb-D1b and Pinb-D1p alleles.

ConclusionsMolecular characterization of the Puroindoline-D1 allele was investigated in bread wheat cultivars from five geographic regions, resulting in the discovery of two new alleles - Pina-D1s and Pina-D1u. Molecular markers were developed for both alleles. Analysis of the association of the Puroindoline-D1 alleles with grain texture showed that cultivars with PINA-null allele possessed relatively high SKCS hardness index. This study can provide useful information for the improvement of wheat quality, as well as give a deeper understanding of the molecular and genetic processes controlling grain texture in bread wheat.

KeywordsBread wheat Triticum aestivum L. Puroindoline-D1 genes Grain texture Primer walking Functional marker AbbreviationsSKCSSingle kernel characterization system


Pina-D1Puroindoline a-D1

Pinb-D1Puroindoline b-D1

Gsp-1Grain Softness Protein

CIMMYTInternational maize and wheat improvement center

dCAPSderived Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequences

PCRPolymerase chain reaction

SNPSingle nucleotide polymorphism

NILNear-isogenic line.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1471-2229-13-125 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Feng Chen, Huanhuan Li contributed equally to this work.

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Author: Feng Chen - Huanhuan Li - Dangqun Cui


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