Human papillomavirus and other genital infections in indigenous women from Paraguay: a cross-sectional analytical studyReportar como inadecuado

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BMC Infectious Diseases

, 13:531

Sexually transmitted diseases


BackgroundThe incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus HPV being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous women is limited. This cross-sectional study analyzed the frequency of HPV and other genital infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes.

MethodsThis study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. They belonged to the following ethnicities: Maká n = 40; Nivaclé n = 23; Sanapaná n = 33; Enxet Sur n = 51 and Toba-Qom n = 34. The detection of HPV and other gynecological infectious microorganisms was performed by either molecular methods for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis, gram staining and-or culture for Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, serological methods for Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus HIV or cytology cervical inflammation.

ResultsA high prevalence 41.4% of women positive for at least one sexually transmitted infection STI was found 23.2% any-type HPV, 11.6% T pallidum, 10.5% T vaginalis, 9.9% C trachomatis and 0.6% HIV with 12.2% having more than one STI. HPV infection was the most frequent, with 16.1% of women positive for high-risk HPV types. There was a statistically significant association observed between any-type HPV and C trachomatis p = 0.004, which indicates that the detection of one of these agents should suggest the presence of the other. There was no association between any-type HPV and other genital infections or cervical inflammation, suggesting that other mechanism could exist to favor infection with the virus.

ConclusionThis multidisciplinary work suggests that STIs are frequent, making it necessary to implement control measures and improve diagnosis in order to increase the number of cases detected, especially in populations with poor access to health centers.

KeywordsHuman papillomavirus Indigenous Paraguayan women Genital infections Cervical inflammation Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1471-2334-13-531 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Laura Mendoza - Pamela Mongelos - Malvina Paez - Amalia Castro - Isabel Rodriguez-Riveros - Graciela Gimenez - Patricia Ara


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