Hepatitis Delta: Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Management 36 Years After DiscoveryReport as inadecuate

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Current Gastroenterology Reports

, 16:365

Topical Collection on Liver


With recent studies showing increased prevalence of hepatitis delta HDV even in the US, Australia, and some countries in Europe, and very high prevalence in endemic regions, HDV infection is far from being a disappearing disease. Although immigrants from endemic countries have been shown to have increased risk, studies have clearly shown that the disease is not solely appearing in traditional high-risk groups. Recent studies provide increasing evidence that sexual transmission may be an important factor in HDV infection spread. Based on the totality of evidence showing increased disease progression and substantially increased risk of cirrhosis in HDV-infected CHB patients, and the current studies showing higher than expected prevalence, it is time to call for HDV screening of all CHB patients. HDV viral load detection and measurement should be considered in all patients whether or not they are anti-HDV-positive. With universal screening of CHB patients for HDV, earlier diagnosis and consideration of treatment would be possible. Current treatment of HDV is IFN-based therapy with or without HBV antivirals, but current research indicates the possibility that prenylation inhibitors, entry inhibitors, HBsAg release inhibitors, or other therapies currently in the pipeline may provide more effective therapy in the future. In addition, universal screening would serve the important public health goal of allowing patients to be educated on their status and on the need for HDV-negative patients to protect themselves against superinfection and for HDV-infected patients to protect against transmission to others. Further studies and global awareness of HDV infection are needed.

KeywordsHepatitis RNA Chronic hepatitis Hepatitis delta virus Cirrhosis Interferon-alpha AbbreviationsBEABaseline Event-Anticipation

CHBcChronic hepatitis B

chol-siRNAcCholesterol-conjugated siRNA

HBsAghHepatitis B surface antigen

HBVhHepatitis B virus

HCChHepatocellular carcinoma

HDVHepatitis Delta virus

NAG-MLPN-acetylgalactosamine-conjugated melittin-like peptide

NAPnNucleic acid-based amphipathic polymer

Peg-IFNpPegylated interferon

qRT-PCRqQuantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction

RNAiRNA interference

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Liver

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Author: Mazen Noureddin - Robert Gish

Source: https://link.springer.com/

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