Volume reduction of the jugular foramina in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with syringomyeliaReportar como inadecuado




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BMC Veterinary Research

, 8:158

Cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, urological medicine

Abstract

BackgroundUnderstanding the pathogenesis of the chiari-like malformation in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel CKCS is incomplete, and current hypotheses do not fully explain the development of syringomyelia SM in the spinal cords of affected dogs. This study investigates an unconventional pathogenetic theory for the development of cerebrospinal fluid CSF pressure waves in the subarachnoid space in CKCS with SM, by analogy with human diseases. In children with achondroplasia the shortening of the skull base can lead to a narrowing of the jugular foramina JF between the cranial base synchondroses. This in turn has been reported to cause a congestion of the major venous outflow tracts of the skull and consequently to an increase in the intracranial pressure ICP. Amongst brachycephalic dog breeds the CKCS has been identified as having an extremely short and wide braincase. A stenosis of the JF and a consequential vascular compromise in this opening could contribute to venous hypertension, raising ICP and causing CSF jets in the spinal subarachnoid space of the CKCS. In this study, JF volumes in CKCSs with and without SM were compared to assess a possible role of this pathologic mechanism in the development of SM in this breed.

ResultsComputed tomography CT scans of 40 CKCSs > 4 years of age were used to create three-dimensional 3D models of the skull and the JF. Weight matched groups 7–10 kg of 20 CKCSs with SM and 20 CKCSs without SM were compared. CKCSs without SM presented significantly larger JF -volumes median left JF: 0.0633 cm; median right JF: 0.0703 cm; p < 0.0001 when compared with CKCSs with SM median left JF: 0.0382 cm; median right JF: 0.0434 cm; p < 0.0001. There was no significant difference between the left and right JF within each group. Bland-Altman analysis revealed excellent reproducibility of all volume measurements.

ConclusionA stenosis of the JF and consecutive venous congestion may explain the aetiology of CSF pressure waves in the subarachnoid space, independent of cerebellar herniation, as an additional pathogenetic factor for the development of SM in this breed.

KeywordsAchondroplasia Chiari-like malformation Caudal occipital malformation AbbreviationsCLMChiari-like malformation

CKCSCavalier King Charles Spaniel

CSFCerebrospinal fluid

CTComputed tomography

FLAIRFluid attenuated inversion recovery

FFEFast field echo

ICPIntracranial pressure

JFJugular foramen

MRMagnetic Resonance

SDStandard deviation

SMSyringomyelia

3DThree-dimensional.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1746-6148-8-158 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Martin Jürgen Schmidt - Nele Ondreka - Maren Sauerbrey - Holger Andreas Volk - Christoph Rummel - Martin Kramer

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/



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