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Abstract: We have proposed a program for determining the reference for the quasi-localenergy defined in the covariant Hamiltonian formalism. Our program has beentested by applying it to the spherically symmetric spacetimes. With respect todifferent observers we found that the quasi-local energy can be positive, zero,or even negative. The observer measuring the maximum energy was identified; theassociated energy is positive for both the Schwarzschild and theFriedmann-Lema\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker spacetimes.



Autor: Chiang-Mei Chen, Jian-Liang Liu, James M. Nester, Ming-Fan Wu

Fuente: https://arxiv.org/



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