Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.Report as inadecuate

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BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

, 12:166

Basic research


BackgroundThe aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus A. spinosus Linn., whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses.

MethodsThe crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37°C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms.

ResultsIn the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg-kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg-kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent 0.01-10.0 mg-ml spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine 0.1 μM. When tested on K 80 mM-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca concentration-response curves CRCs towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K 80 mM and carbachol CCh, 1 μM-induced contractions at 1 mg-ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol 1 μM, caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract up to 0.3 mg-ml also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration 1.0-5.0 mg-ml. The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to that of isoprenaline. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic components was separated in the organic fraction, whereas the spasmogenic component was concentrated in the aqueous fraction.

ConclusionThese results indicate that A. spinosus possesses laxative activity partially mediated through cholinergic action. The spasmolytic effect was mediated through calcium channel blocking CCB, while bronchodilator activity through a combination of β-adrenergic and CCB pathways, which may explain the traditional uses of A. spinosus in gut and airways disorders.

KeywordsAmaranthus spinosus Laxative Spasmolytic Bronchodilator Cholinergic Ca antagonist AbbreviationsAChAcetylcholine

A. spinosusAmaranthus spinosus

As.CrThe crude extract of A. spinosus

As.EtAcThe ethyl acetate fraction of the crude extract of A. spinosus

As.AqThe aqueous fractions of the crude extract of A. spinosus

CCBCa channel blockade


CIConfidence interval

CRCsConcentration-response curves

EC50Median effective concentration

nNumber of experiments

VDLCsVoltage dependent L-type Ca channels.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1472-6882-12-166 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Mueen Ahmad Chaudhary - Imran Imran - Samra Bashir - Malik Hassan Mehmood - Najeeb-ur Rehman - Anwarul-Hassan Gilani

Source: https://link.springer.com/

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