Trans Fatty Acid Intakes and Food Sources in the U.S. Population: NHANES 1999–2002Report as inadecuate

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, Volume 47, Issue 10, pp 931–940

First Online: 18 August 2012Received: 16 November 2011Accepted: 19 July 2012


Because of efforts to decrease trans fatty acids TFA in the food supply, intake should be assessed in the population to establish a baseline TFA intake. The 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES was used to identify a benchmark for TFA intake. TFA was estimated by mean, median, and quintile of intake, TFA intake data were weighted using the NHANES 4-year sample weights. The main outcome measures included TFA intake in grams per day and percentage of energy in the top 25 food sources of TFA. Data are reported for 16,669 individuals ≥3 years of age. Median TFA intake was 2.3 % of calories 5 g-day with 0.9–4.5 % of energy 1.5–13.1 g-day over different quintiles of intake. Mean TFA intake was 2.5 % of energy 6.1 g-day. The range of TFA intake in the fifth quintile was very large, i.e., 3.5–12.5 % of energy or 8.8–92.4 g-day. Increasing quintiles of TFA intake were associated with increases in total fat 26.7–37.6 % of energy, saturated fat 7.6–10.5 % of energy, and calories for those >20 years of age: 2,416–2,583 for men and 1,679–1,886 for women. Major food sources of dietary TFA were cakes, cookies, pies, and pastries. Based on current dietary guidance to consume as little industrial TFA as possible, much progress is needed to attain this goal, including food industry efforts to remove TFA from the food supply and educating the public about making healthy food choices.

KeywordsTrans fatty acid intake Industrial trans fatty acid intake Fatty acid intake Quintiles of trans fatty acid intake Food sources of trans fatty acids NHANES 1999–2002 AbbreviationsCSFIIContinuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals

FAREFoods Analysis and Residue Evaluation Program

FDAU.S. Food and Drug Administration

MUFAMonounsaturated fatty acids

NHANESNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

SFASaturated fatty acids

TFATrans fatty acids

USDAU.S. Department of Agriculture

For the ILSI North America Technical Committee on Dietary Lipids.

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Author: Penny M. Kris-Etherton - Michael Lefevre - Ronald P. Mensink - Barbara Petersen - Jennifer Fleming - Brent D. Flickinger


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