Are there symplastic connections between the endosperm and embryo in some angiosperms—a lesson from the Crassulaceae familyReport as inadecuate




Are there symplastic connections between the endosperm and embryo in some angiosperms—a lesson from the Crassulaceae family - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

Protoplasma

, Volume 249, Issue 4, pp 1081–1089

First Online: 27 November 2011Received: 30 September 2011Accepted: 09 November 2011

Abstract

It is believed that there is symplastic isolation between the embryo new sporophyte and the endosperm maternal-parental origin tissue, which nourishes the embryo in angiosperms. However, in embryological literature there are rare examples in which plasmodesmata between the embryo suspensor and endosperm cells have been recorded three species from Fabaceae. This study was undertaken in order to test the hypothesis that plasmodesmata between the embryo suspensor and the endosperm are not so rare but also occur in other angiosperm families; in order to check this, we used the Crassulaceae family because embryogenesis in Crassulaceae has been studied extensively at an ultrastructure level recently and also we tread members of this family as model for suspensor physiology and function studies. These plasmodesmata even occurred between the basal cell of the two-celled proembryo and endosperm cells. The plasmodesmata were simple at this stage of development. During the development of the embryo proper and the suspensor, the structure of plasmodesmata changes. They were branched and connected with electron-dense material. Our results suggest that in Crassulaceae with plasmodesmata between the endosperm and suspensor, symplastic connectivity at this cell–cell boundary is still reduced or blocked at a very early stage of embryo development before the globular stage. The occurrence of plasmodesmata between the embryo suspensor and endosperm cells suggests possible symplastic transport between these different organs, at least at a very early stage of embryo development. However, whether this transport actually occurs needs to be proven experimentally. A broader analysis of plants from various families would show whether the occurrence of plasmodesmata between the embryo suspensor and the endosperm are typical embryological characteristics and if this is useful in discussions about angiosperm systematic and evolution.

KeywordsCrassulaceae Embryo suspensor Endosperm Plasmodesmata Symplastic transport Ultrastructure Handling Editor: Hanns H. Kassemeyer

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Author: Małgorzata Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno - Bartosz Jan Płachno

Source: https://link.springer.com/







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