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Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences

, Volume 19, Issue 6, pp 626–637

First Online: 13 July 2012


BackgroundImproved imaging methods and surgical techniques have created a new era in hepatopancreatobiliary HPB surgery. Despite these developments, visual inspection, palpation, and intraoperative ultrasound remain the most utilized tools during surgery today. This is problematic, though, especially in laparoscopic HPB surgery, where palpation is not possible. Optical imaging using near-infrared NIR fluorescence can be used for the real-time assessment of both anatomy e.g., sensitive detection and demarcation of tumours and vital structures and function e.g., assessment of luminal flow and tissue perfusion during both open and minimally invasive surgeries.

MethodsThis article reviews the published literature related to preclinical development and clinical applications of NIR fluorescence imaging during HPB surgery.

ResultsNIR fluorescence imaging combines the use of otherwise invisible NIR fluorescent contrast agents and specially designed camera systems, which are capable of detecting these contrast agents during surgery. Unlike visible light, NIR fluorescent light can penetrate several millimetres through blood and living tissue, thus providing improved detectability. Applications of this technique during HPB surgery include tumour imaging in liver and pancreas, and real-time imaging of the biliary tree.

ConclusionsNIR fluorescence imaging is a promising new technique that may someday improve surgical accuracy and lower complications.

KeywordsNear-infrared fluorescence Image-guided surgery Indocyanine green Hepatopancreatobiliary surgery  Download fulltext PDF



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