Evidence for genetic differentiation at the microgeographic scale in Phlebotomus papatasi populations from SudanReportar como inadecuado

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Parasites and Vectors

, 5:249

First Online: 12 November 2012Received: 13 July 2012Accepted: 05 November 2012


BackgroundCutaneous Leishmaniasis CL is endemic in Sudan. It is caused by Leishmania major parasites and transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi sandflies. Recently, uncommon clinical manifestations of CL have been reported. Moreover, L. donovani parasites that cause Visceral Leishmaniasis VL have been isolated from CL lesions of some patients who contracted the disease in Khartoum State, Central Sudan with no history of travelling to VL endemic sites on south-eastern Sudan. Because different clinical manifestations and the parasite behaviour could be related to genetic differentiation, or even sub-structuring within sandfly vector populations, a population genetic study was conducted on P. papatasi populations collected from different localities in Khartoum State known for their uncommon CL cases and characterized by contrasting environmental conditions.

MethodsA set of seven microsatellite loci was used to investigate the population structure of P. papatasi samples collected from different localities in Khartoum State, Central Sudan. Populations from Kassala State, Eastern Sudan and Egypt were also included in the analyses as outgroups. The level of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation among natural populations of P. papatasi was determined using FST statistics and Bayesian assignments.

ResultsGenetic analyses revealed significant genetic differentiation FST between the Sudanese and the Egyptian populations. Within the Sudanese P. papatasi populations, one population from Gerif West, Khartoum State, exhibited significant genetic differentiation from all other populations including those collected as near as 22 km.

ConclusionThe significant genetic differentiation of Gerif West P. papatasi population from other Sudanese populations may have important implication for the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Khartoum State and needs to be further investigated. Primarily, it could be linked to the unique location of Gerif West which is confined by the River Nile and its tributaries that may act as a natural barrier for gene flow between this site and the other rural sites. The observed high migration rates and lack of genetic differentiation among the other P. papatasi populations could be attributed to the continuous human and cattle movement between these localities.

KeywordsPhlebotomus papatasi Sudan Gene flow Genetic differentiation AbbreviationCLCutaneous leishmaniasis

VLVisceral leishmaniasis

MOMoyleih, a semi-desert area on the west bank of the White Nile

TREl-Trais, an irrigated area on the west bank of the White Nile

SRSirougia village, a green rich irrigated area on the east bank of the River Nile

GWGerif West, a residential area on the west bank of the Blue Nile

SHRWad Shariefai village, in Kassala State, Eastern Sudan where the three closely-related species belonging to the subgenus Phlebotomus Phlebotomus were found sympatrically

EGYColony samples from Egypt

HWEHardy-Weinberg equilibrium

HeExpected heterozygosity

HoObserved heterozygosity

SDStandard deviation

Wright’s FSTMeasure of population differentiation

FISInbreeding coefficient

NmRate of gene flow among populations.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1756-3305-5-249 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Noteila M Khalid - Marium A Aboud - Fathi M Alrabba - Dia-Eldin A Elnaiem - Frederic Tripet

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/

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