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Marine Biodiversity

, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 365–382

First Online: 30 November 2010Received: 30 April 2010Revised: 06 October 2010Accepted: 25 October 2010

Abstract

The diel vertical migration DVM of Calanus Calanus finmarchicus, Calanus glacialis and Calanus hyperboreus and Metridia longa was investigated in August 2008 at six locations to the north and northwest of Svalbard Rijpfjorden, Ice, Marginal Ice Zone, Shelf break, Shelf and Kongsfjorden. Despite midnight sun conditions, a diel light cycle was clearly observed at all stations. We collected data on zooplankton vertical distribution using a Multi Plankton Sampler 200-μm mesh size and an EK60 echosounder system 38, 120 and 200 kHz. These were supplemented by environmental data collected using a standard conductivity, temperature and depth CTD profiler. The sea ice had recently opened in Rijpfjorden, Ice and Shelf stations, and these stations exhibited phytoplankton bloom conditions with pronounced fluorescence maxima at approximately 30 m. In contrast, Kongsfjorden was more representative of autumn conditions, with the Arctic bloom having culminated 2–3 months prior to sampling. All three Calanus species were found shallower than 50 m on average at Rijpfjorden and the Ice station, while C. glacialis and C. hyperboreus were found deeper than 200 m on average at Kongsfjorden. Shallow water DVM behaviour <50 m was observed at Rijpfjorden and the Shelf station, especially among the C. finmarchicus CI-CIII population, which was particularly abundant at the Shelf >5,000 individuals-m. A bimodal depth distribution was observed among C. finmarchicus at the Shelf break station, with CI-CIII copepodites dominating at depths shallower than 100 m and CIV-adult stages dominating at depths exceeding 600 m. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences between the day and night 200-kHz data, particularly at specified depth strata 25–50 m where backscatter intensity was higher during the day, especially in Rijpfjorden and at the Ice station. We conclude that DVM signals exist in the Arctic during late summer-autumn, when a need to feed and an abundant food source exists, and these signals are primarily due to mesozooplankton.

KeywordsArctic Ocean Diel vertical migration Calanus Phytoplankton bloom Seasonal vertical migration This article belongs to the special issue ‘‘Marine Biodiversity under Change’’

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Autor: Ananda Rabindranath - Malin Daase - Stig Falk-Petersen - Anette Wold - Margaret I. Wallace - Jørgen Berge - Andrew S. Br

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/



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