Small noncoding RNA modulates japanese encephalitis virus replication and translation in transReport as inadecuate

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Virology Journal

, 8:492

First Online: 01 November 2011Received: 27 August 2011Accepted: 01 November 2011


BackgroundSequence and structural elements in the 3-untranslated region UTR of Japanese encephalitis virus JEV are known to regulate translation and replication. We previously reported an abundant accumulation of small subgenomic flaviviral RNA sfRNA which is collinear with the highly conserved regions of the 3-UTR in JEV-infected cells. However, function of the sfRNA in JEV life cycle remains unknown.

ResultsNorthern blot and real-time RT-PCR analyses indicated that the sfRNA becomes apparent at the time point at which minus-strand RNA antigenome reaches a plateau suggesting a role for sfRNA in the regulation of antigenome synthesis. Transfection of minus-sense sfRNA into JEV-infected cells, in order to counter the effects of plus-sense sfRNA, resulted in higher levels of antigenome suggesting that the presence of the sfRNA inhibits antigenome synthesis. Trans-acting effect of sfRNA on JEV translation was studied using a reporter mRNA containing the luciferase gene fused to partial coding regions of JEV and flanked by the respective JEV UTRs. In vivo and in vitro translation revealed that sfRNA inhibited JEV translation.

ConclusionsOur results indicate that sfRNA modulates viral translation and replication in trans.

List of abbreviationsCSconserved sequences

DARdownstream of the AUG

DENVdengue virus

JEVJapanese encephalitis virus

MOImultiplicity of infection

sfRNAsmall flaviviral RNA

SLAstemloop A

UARupstream of the AUG

UTRuntranslated region

WNVWest Nile virus.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1743-422X-8-492 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Yi-Hsin Fan - Muthukumar Nadar - Chiu-Chin Chen - Chia-Chen Weng - Yun-Tong Lin - Ruey-Yi Chang


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