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Business and Information Systems Engineering

, Volume 3, Issue 6, pp 369–380

A State of the Art AnalysisFirst Online: 18 November 2011Received: 08 October 2010Accepted: 11 June 2011


In recent years, manufacturing companies and service providers have moved towards offering customer-specific problem solutions. These integrated bundles usually consist of hardware, software, and service components and are called product service systems PSS or hybrid products. Since the success of the resulting solution depends on the understanding of all requirements, requirements engineering RE has become a key factor. The article analyzes the state of the art of RE for PSS based on an extensive literature review in the domains of product-, software-, and service engineering. For this, criteria are derived from the characteristics of PSS and from the task area of RE in the life cycle of PSS. Based on these criteria we analyze the most established RE approaches for their suitability for PSS. An important finding is that integrated-interdisciplinary approaches for RE are missing. Moreover, the maturity of RE approaches in the three domains varies significantly. All analyzed approaches heavily rely on concepts and solution characteristics of their own domain so that a transfer to other domains is hardly possible. This literature review lays the foundation for successful RE for PSS and especially for future research aiming at combining and integrating RE approaches and models of product-, software-, and service engineering. Such requirement models could connect concepts of single domains and enable an integrated and seamless RE for PSS.

KeywordsRequirements engineering Product service system Hybrid product State of the art Product engineering Software engineering Service engineering Accepted after three revisions by Prof. Dr. Buxmann.

This article is also available in German in print and via Berkovich M, Leimeister JM, Krcmar H 2011 Requirements Engineering für Product Service Systems. Eine State-of-the-Art-Analyse. WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK. doi: 10.1007-s11576-011-0301-3.

The results of this paper have been developed in the collaborative research centre SFB 768 – cycle management of innovation processes – supported by the DFG. For further information see

Electronic Supplementary MaterialThe online version of this article doi: 10.1007-s12599-011-0192-2 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Marina Berkovich - Jan Marco Leimeister - Helmut Krcmar


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