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Abstract: We show that keeping a constant lower limit on the net-time headway is thekey mechanism behind the dynamics of pedestrian streams. There is a largevariety in flow and speed as functions of density for empirical data ofpedestrian streams, obtained from studies in different countries. The net-timeheadway however, stays approximately constant over all these different datasets. By using this fact, we demonstrate how the underlying dynamics ofpedestrian crowds, naturally follows from local interactions. This means thatthere is no need to come up with an arbitrary fit function with arbitrary fitparameters as has traditionally been done. Further, by using not only theaverage density values, but the variance as well, we show how the recentlyreported stop-and-go waves Helbing et al., Physical Review E, 75, 046109emerge when local density variations take values exceeding a certain maximumglobal average density, which makes pedestrians stop.



Author: Anders Johansson

Source: https://arxiv.org/







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