Frontal Bone Remodeling for Gender Reassignment of the Male Forehead: A Gender-Reassignment SurgeryReport as inadecuate

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Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

, Volume 35, Issue 6, pp 1043–1049

First Online: 15 May 2011Received: 04 January 2011Accepted: 28 March 2011


Gender-reassignment therapy, especially for reshaping of the forehead, can be an effective treatment to improve self-esteem. Contouring of the cranial vault, especially of the forehead, still is a rarely performed surgical procedure for gender reassignment. In addition to surgical bone remodeling, several materials have been used for remodeling and refinement of the frontal bone. But due to shortcomings of autogenous bone material and the disadvantages of polyethylene or methylmethacrylate, hydroxyapatite cement HAC composed of tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate seems to be an alternative. This study aimed to analyze the clinical outcome after frontal bone remodeling with HAC for gender male-to-female reassignment. The 21 patients in the study were treated for gender reassignment of the male frontal bone using HAC. The average age of these patients was 33.4 years range, 21–42 years. The average volume of HAC used per patient was 3.83 g. The authors’ clinical series demonstrated a satisfactory result. The surgery was easy to perform, and HAC was easy to apply and shape to suit individual needs. Overall satisfaction was very high. Therefore, HAC is a welcome alternative to the traditional use of autogenous bone graft for correction of cranial vault irregularities.

KeywordsBoneSource Forehead feminization Frontal bone Gender reassignment  Download fulltext PDF

Author: Johannes Franz Hoenig


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