The epidemiology of human papillomavirus infection in HIV-positive and HIV-negative high-risk women in Kigali, RwandaReport as inadecuate

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BMC Infectious Diseases

, 11:333

HIV and co-infections


BackgroundThe prevalence, incidence and persistence of human papillomavirus HPV types in sub-Saharan Africa are not well established. The objectives of the current study are to describe predictors of the epidemiology of HPV among high-risk women in Kigali, Rwanda.

MethodsHIV-negative, high-risk women were seen quarterly for one year, and once in Year 2. HIV serostatus, clinical, and behavioral information were assessed at each visit, HPV types at Month 6 and Year 2, and other sexually transmitted infections STI at selected visits. HPV prevalence was also assessed in HIV-positive, high-risk women.

ResultsPrevalence of any HPV was 47.0% in HIV-negative women median age 25 years compared to 72.2% in HIV-positive women median age 27 years; OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9-4.6. Among HIV-negative women, cumulative incidence of high-risk HR-HPV was 28.0% and persistence 32.0% after a mean period of 16.6 and 16.9 months, respectively. Prior Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection, concurrent low-risk LR-HPV infection and incident HSV-2 were associated with HR-HPV prevalence among HIV-negative women; prior C. trachomatis infection and co-infection with LR-HPV and HPV16-related HPV types with HR-HPV acquisition. HPV16-related types were the most prevalent and persistent.

ConclusionsHigh HPV prevalence, incidence and persistence were found among high-risk women in Kigali. HPV52 had the highest incidence; and, together with HPV33 and HPV58, were strongly associated with acquisition of other HR-HPV types in HIV-negative women.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1471-2334-11-333 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Nienke J Veldhuijzen - Sarah L Braunstein - Joseph Vyankandondera - Chantal Ingabire - Justin Ntirushwa - Evelyne Kestelyn


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