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Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing

, Volume 65, Issue 1, pp 89–95

First Online: 04 February 2010Received: 12 December 2009Revised: 15 January 2010Accepted: 16 January 2010


The pathological elements voltage mirror VM and current mirror CM have shown advantages in analog behavioral modeling and circuit synthesis, where many nullor-mirror equivalences have been explored to design and to transform voltage-mode circuits to current-mode ones and viceversa. However, both the VM and CM have not equivalents to perform automatic symbolic circuit analysis. In this manner, we introduce nullor-equivalents for these pathological elements allowing to include parasitics and to perform only symbolic nodal analysis. The nullor-equivalent of the CM is extended to provide multiple-outpus MO-CM. Finally, two active filters containing VMs, CMs and MO-CMs are analysed to show the usefulness of the models.

KeywordsNullor Voltage mirror Current mirror Symbolic analysis Nodal analysis Active filter E. Tlelo-Cuautle was Visiting Researcher at University of California Riverside during 2009–2010 under a CONACyT sabbatical leave grant

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Autor: E. Tlelo-Cuautle - C. Sánchez-López - E. Martínez-Romero - Sheldon X.-D. Tan


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